In Shariah Law, most of the penalties and punishments associated with different crimes are upon discretion of the ruler or the judge. They also involve victims and the offenders. For example, in case of a murder, a victim’s family can forgive the murderer in return of Diyya (compensation) or nothing. However, when it comes to Hudud, also pronounce as Hadd, offenses; the punishment is fixed and pre determined. There are set rules and requirements when it comes to Hudud crimes and should be followed while handing out punishments to offenders.
Hudud offenses can be basically defined in six categories. These categories are defined below:
• Robbery at Highway
• Robbery or theft
• Zina (Sexual intercourse between people not bonded through marriage)
• False claim of Zina
• Being indulged in drinking alcoholic drinks
• And lastly, Apostasy
Now the following punishments or penalties are handed out to the offenders or criminals according to Islamic Sharia Law:
• Robbery at Highway or Highway Robbery is punishable by death.
• Robbery or theft may result in either imprisonment or amputation of arm depending on the nature and value of stolen item.
• Zina (if proven) can result in 100 lashes for unmarried man or woman in addition to exile for a year. For unmarried man or woman, it’s even harsher. They are to be punished with 100 lashes and stoning to death.
• False claim of Zina will result into punishment in form of lashes to the accuser for wrongly accusing others.
• Drinking alcoholic drinks is also punishable by a number of lashes
• Most importantly, muslims converting to other religions are strictly frowned upon and such an act is punishable by death.
These penalties and punishments may seem harsh but they are present to avoid any kind of anarchy or chaotic situation in an Islamic state and also maintain/ develop a strong moral and ethical code in society.