Muslim Sharia or Islamic Sharia means a legal code of conductance to be followed in a Muslim society.The basic source forming these laws is derived from the Holy Book of Muslims known as Quran and from Hadith and the Sunnah of the last Prophet of Islam. There is however an evolving field of Sharia which includes Fiqh, Ijtahad and Fatwa; all of which are based on issues which are not discussed in the above mentioned more authentic sources and are declared by the Islamic scholars of that time in point.
Teachings of Muslim Sharia are mainly divided into two sections; one of them is known as Al-ibadaat,which include the five pillars of Islam namely Shahada (affirmation that Allah is the only god and Prophet Mohammed is the messenger of Allah), five prayers a day, fasting in the Holy month of Ramadan, paying Zakat and performing Hajj.
The second section is known as Al-muamalaatwhich includes financial matters,laws concerning marriages and divorces, laws regarding inheritance and other social issues.It also includes punishments of various offenses committed by people including murder, stealing, adultery, and so on.
The punishments regarding various sinful acts are known as Hadood. For example, if a man is caught stealing it is in the law to amputate his right hand. If somebody commits adultery, for an unmarried offender it is ordered to punish him with hundred lashes, but if the offender is married than one hundred lashes followed by stoning till the person dies.Similarly, if someone consumes alcohol,he or she should be punished with eighty lashes.
All are of these punishments are only applicable when there are witnesses for the crimes being committed or if the offender himself accepts that he committed a particular sin. If someone turns away from Islam after accepting it is known as apostasy and the offender should be sentenced to death.Similarly, there are laws regarding marriages, child adaptation, and regarding food consumption. Pork is prohibited in Islam and also any animal which has not been slaughtered in the name of Allah.
It is unfortunate for the Muslim world that out of the fifty plus Muslim countries in the world today only a very few countries have completely applied the teachings of Islamic Sharia,infact only Saudi Arabia can claim that. Other Muslim countries like Afghanistan,Tunisia, Pakistan and Malaysia have to some extent the implementation of Islamic Sharia.
The United Nations and the so called protectors of human right shave questioned the punishment of theft or adultery in Islamic law as harsh and brutal. But what they do not look at is the huge difference between the crime rates of the Western countries as compared to Muslim countries like Saudi Arabia.