Sharia is an Arabic word which means set of instructions. Muslim Sharia thus corresponds to the laws that govern the lives of those who have embraced Islam. It deals with all the concepts related to the humans. The type of interactions among the fellow muslims and society are the key aspects of sharia. Also the rights of animals and the teachings related to tolerance are included in it.
We need religion to mould our lives according to specific criteria. Thinking processes can not proceed without following a certain sequence. The foremost approach in making any progress is to see how and when the steps are taken. The religion teaches us how to offer prayers and salutations to the divine source; and having a perfect example before us as a model to follow. Islam is a divine religion, Allah Almighty is the entity that we worship and Muhammad is our role model. The divine source that gives us all the instructions is the Holy Book Quran which was revealed to the last Prophet Muhammad.
Quran is the most significant source of Muslim Sharia, whose practical implementation is found in the lifestyle of Muhammad. His sayings and acts are termed as Sunnah which is the second source. The third and fourth sources are Ijma and Qiyaas. The Muslim scholars agree on a matter by using their knowledge of Quran and Sunnah. Qiyaas also uses the primary sources by deducing the result with intellect and reasoning.
The religious practices that we follow from Quran are the pillars or foundation of Islam. Prayers, charity, pilgrimage, fasting; preceded by believing in Allah and Muhammad. An ideal Islamic society can be built by implementing the laws of sharia related to the society as a whole.
Muslim Sharia deals with the basic life of an ordinary citizen in an elaborate manner. Justice plays a pivotal role in maintaining law and order situation in a state. It encourages equality, discourages corruption and paves way for a fruitful future of the citizens. Only an honest and just person can play the role of a judge. Education and a respectable earning facility is the right of everyone. During the times of war the enemy captives must be dealt with utmost respect. It is against Muslim Sharia to cut the plants and tree during wars. The mannerism and etiquettes are devised for eating as well. The people belonging to other religions are not harmed, neither forced to follow Islam.
The leader of an Islamic state can learn from the lives of Muhammad and his companions. Quran has specific chapters related to the formation and development of an ideal state where everyone is equal before the law. The punishments are defined in detail, but forgiveness is given priority. Wisdom and fair dealings are encouraged. Womenfolk are duly respected and inherit the property from their father as well as husband. They played a vital role during wars by tending to the wounded. The wives of Muhammad are known as the “mothers of Muslims” and they are a role model for the Muslim women.
Muslim Sharia is a diverse topic which can not be summarized in few sentences. It is an in depth study of Quran and Sunnah which has solution for each and every problem that may arise for a Muslim.